Key to the Pollen of the Bahamas©

Links to the keys.

Link to the Master Key Link to the Submaster Key to Rotational Grains Link to the Submaster Key to Porate Grains Link to the Submaster Key to Tricolpate Grains Link to the Submaster Key to Tricolporate Grains Link to the Key to Vesiculate Grains Link to the Key to Tetrad Grains Link to the Key to Polyad Grains Link to the Key to Bilaterally Symmetrical Grains and Spores Link to the Key to Inaperturate and Irregular Grains Link to the Key to Subtetrahedral Spores
Link to the Key to Stephanocolpate Grains Link to the Key to Pericolpate Grains Link to the Key to Monocolporate Grains Link to the Key to Polycolporate Grains Link to the Key to Tetracolporate Grains Link to the Key to Monocolpate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Psilate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Scabrate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Verrucate, Echinate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Suprareticulate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Per-reticulate Grains
Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Intectate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Psilate, Scabrate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Echinate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Foveate, Suprareticulate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Intectate, Per-reticulate Grains Link to the Key to Monoporate Grains Link to the Key to Diporate Grains Link to the Key to Triporate Grains Link to the Key to Stephanoporate Grains Link to the Key to Periporate Grains

Highlighted words are linked to their glossary definitions. Definitions and images contributed by the Glossary of Pollen and Spore Terminology,second and revised edition by Peter Hoen.


Master Key

A2 Grains with air-sacks

Table A
Key to Vesiculate Grains
A1 Grains without air-sacks



B2 Composite grains of more than one subunit

Table B
Key to Tetrad and Polyad Grains

B1 Grains single




C2 Grains bilaterally symmetrical

Table C
Key to Bilaterally Symmetrical Grains and Spores


C1 Grains other





D3 Grains irregular

Table F
Key to Inaperturate and Irregular Grains



D2 Grains subtetrahedal

Table D
Key to Subtetrahedral Spores



D1 Grains rotational

Table E
Submaster Key to Rotational Grains

Note:  It can be difficult to decide, from some single grains, if it is porate, colpate, or colporate, particularly if you can’t rotate the grain.  Frequently, but not always, colporate grains will have costa endocolpi, meridionally oriented internal ridges that follow the lines of the furrows.  These grains will have breaks in the costa endocolpi at the location of the pore that can be seen when focusing down through the grain.  Some taxa included in this key are exceedingly difficult to categorize as colpate or colporate from observation of slides containing multiple grains.  In these cases assignment to a section of the key was based on the standard interpretation of Erdtman.  Users of the key may find it necessary to run a few unknown pollens through the appropriate subsection of the colpate and colporate keys for an identification.



  To download the taxonomic key: link to download key   To return to  the introduction: link to introduction   For information on the included taxa: link to taxa and sources   For information on the glossary: link to glossary introduction