Key to the Pollen of the Bahamas©

Links to the keys.

Link to the Master Key Link to the Submaster Key to Rotational Grains Link to the Submaster Key to Porate Grains Link to the Submaster Key to Tricolpate Grains Link to the Submaster Key to Tricolporate Grains Link to the Key to Vesiculate Grains Link to the Key to Tetrad Grains Link to the Key to Polyad Grains Link to the Key to Bilaterally Symmetrical Grains and Spores Link to the Key to Inaperturate and Irregular Grains Link to the Key to Subtetrahedral Spores
Link to the Key to Stephanocolpate Grains Link to the Key to Pericolpate Grains Link to the Key to Monocolporate Grains Link to the Key to Polycolporate Grains Link to the Key to Tetracolporate Grains Link to the Key to Monocolpate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Psilate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Scabrate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Verrucate, Echinate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Suprareticulate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Per-reticulate Grains
Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Intectate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Psilate, Scabrate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Echinate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Foveate, Suprareticulate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Intectate, Per-reticulate Grains Link to the Key to Monoporate Grains Link to the Key to Diporate Grains Link to the Key to Triporate Grains Link to the Key to Stephanoporate Grains Link to the Key to Periporate Grains

Highlighted words are linked to their glossary definitions. Definitions and images contributed by the Glossary of Pollen and Spore Terminology,second and revised edition by Peter Hoen.

Table G1 - G4 Key to Porate Grains


Table G1
Key to Monoporate Grains

A1 Pore diameter less than half that of the grain.




B2 With distinct annulus, various surface sculpturing

Graminae
Graminae unknown image


B1 No annulus





C2 Grains psilate or scabrate, pores rudimentary or not obvious, irregular in shape






D2 Grains with smooth outline







E2 Grains pear-shaped, distinctly scabrate with obvious columellae, 18 x 24 μM

Dichromena
Dichromena images






E1 Grains like collapsed spheres, faintly scabrate, very thin exines, 20-26 μM

Cyperus
Cyperus images






D1 Grains appear folded with edges running along long axis of grain,end opposite pore pointed, faintly scabrate, 40 x 46 μM

Cladium
Cladium images





C2 Grains rotational






F2 Grains scabrate with ulcerated surface, pits so closely spaced surface looks finely reticulate, 36 μM

Typha
Typha images






F1 Grains echinate,sharp, acute spines on rounded bases, spheroidal 66 μM.Grain is actually monocolporate but outer slit may be hard to see.

Herissantia
Herissantia images




Table G2
Key to Diporate Grains

A2 Grains coarsely scabrate or per-reticulate






B2 Grains with very long, blunt-tipped clavae forming tight reticulation, 52-66 μM

Cordia bahamensis
Cordia bahamensis images




B1 Grains with smaller clavaereticulation less obvious, 32-38 μM

Cordia globosa
Cordia globosa images



A1 Grains psilate or scabrate




C2 Grains 40 μM or larger, spheroidal







D2 No obvious structural elements, surface faintly scabrate, pores large lacking sharply defined edges, 54-58 μM, pores 2 – 4 

Angadenia
Angadenia images





D1 Surface psilate, walls thin, grains tend to collapse, 40-44μ Neobracea
Neobracea images



C1 Grains small, suboblate, 15 x 12 μM, psilate with a slight surface texture

Trema
Trema images




Table G3
Key to Triporate Grains

A2 With large, cylindrical vestibulum, 10μ deep, pores protruding

Ludwigia
Ludwigia images



A1 Vestibulum, small, conical or absent




B2 Grains echinate with short spines

Iva
Iva images

B1 Grains not echinate





C2 Equatorial limb circular






D2 Reticulate w/clavate elements (grain is actually colporate but colpi are hard to see)

Antirhea lucida
Antirhea lucida images



D1 Surface psilate-scabrate, pores lacking sharply defined edges

Angadenia
Angadenia images


C1 Equatorial limb angular, at least slightly






E2 Equatorial limb slightly triangular, pore not protruding, pores appear recessed with a thickened exine, surface finely scabrate

Casuarina
Casuarina images



E1 Equatorial limb angular with pores at corners







F2 Pores protrude with a shallow vestibulum, walls thick, columellae not obvious

Myrica
Myrica images




F1 Pores do not protrude, no vestibulum, columellae visible

Thouinia
Thouinia images


Table G4
Key to Stephanoporate and Periporate Grains

A2 Stephanoporate grains with 4-5 pores




B2 Equatorial limb more or less circular





C2 Four pores not exactly aligned on an equatorial plane, surface psilate-scabrate, pores lacking sharply defined edges

Angadenia
Angadenia images





C1 Five pores, slightly recessed with thickened margins

Echites
Echites images




B1 Equatorial limb angular with pores at corners, pores do not protrude, no vestibulum

Thouinia
Thouinia images
A1 Periporate grains




D3 Grains psilate to scabrate or tectum perforatum





E2 Grains tectum perforatum







F2 Grains about 44 μM, apertures short and slit like

Jacquemontia cayensis
Jacquemontia cayensis images






F1 Grains 58-70 μM, grains tend to collapse

Jacquemontia havanensis
Jacquemontia havanensis images 400X





E1 Grains psilate to scabrate







G3 Grains with thick walls, 8-porate with 4 pores in one plane and 4 in another, psilate, no rim on pores, 28 μM Triopteris
Triopteris images






G2 Grains with relatively thick walls, thickened slightly at margins of pores, margins of pores rounded in section, 48-56 μM

Malpighia
Malpighia images 400X






G1 Walls thinner, pores protrude slightly, margins with sharp edges and surrounded by a darker ring on surface view, 38-56 μM

Stigmaphyllon
Stigmaphyllon images 400X




D2 Per-reticulate grains, small with coarse reticulate pattern of uniform lacunae





H2 Long clavate surface elements, lacunae pentagonal, 20-24 μM (spiky soccer balls)

Caraxeron
Caraxeron images




H1 Short gemmate surface elements, lacunae round (golf balls), 12-13 μM

Achyranthes
Achyranthes images




D1 Echinate grains





I2 Long spines with rounded tips appear to arise from surface of a psilate grain, pores obvious, spines well spaced

Pavonia
Pavonia images 400X





I1 Spines arise from bases of various types, usually closely packed






J3 Spines short, taper to acute points, very closely packed on bases with parallel sides, pores not obvious

Sida
Sida images






J2 Spines very short, conical, appear to arise directly from surface of grain, pores well spaced and obvious, surrounded by ring of spines

Boerhavia
Boerhavia images






J1 Spines longer, bases other







K3 Acute spines on short, broad bases, 90 μM.

Gossypium
Gossypium images







K2 Acute spines with bent tips on rounded bases, 130 μM

Ipomea pes-caprae
Ipomea pes-caprae images 400X







K1 Spines with parallel sides and conical to rounded tips on short domed bases, pores abundant and obvious, 80 μM

Ipomea
Ipomea images 400X





  To download the taxonomic key: link to download key   To return to  the introduction: link to introduction   For information on the included taxa: link to taxa and sources   For information on the glossary: link to glossary introduction